Assignment Research Paper Analysis
Prostate cancer affects men and occurs in the prostate gland. In the United States, prostate cancer has been ranked as the second leading cause of cancer death in men. According to the 2019 report, at least 174,650 men were diagnosed with prostate cancer and the number of men living with the disease stands at 3.1 million (Jemal & Siegel, 2019). Nevertheless, African American men are disproportionately affected by the diseases and their risk of developing prostate cancer is higher compared to white men. Statistics reveal that in six African American men, one has to develop prostate cancer in his lifetime. Additionally, African American men have higher chances of getting their diagnosis when cancer has advanced. Equally, they have a 1.7 times probability and 2.3 times the likelihood of getting a diagnosis and dying from prostate cancer respectively compared to the white men (Jemal & Siegel, 2019). It is essential to establish what causes the disparities and come up with a solution that can bridge the gap or lessen the prostate cancer burden among African American men.
The increased rate of prostate cancer among African American men is attributed to socioeconomic status, genetic predisposition and more aggressive cancer. Socioeconomic status determines the care one receives and racial and ethnic minorities tend to get lower quality health care compared to whites. African American men face racial bias in terms of preventative care and may not receive the option of having a PSA test or get informed about the benefits of getting the test compared to white men (Taylor et al., 2016). Genetics is also linked to a higher incidence of prostate cancer among African American men. Research indicates that the men have chromosomes 8q24 which is linked to increased cancer risk as well as increased cell apoptosis genes and tumor-suppression genes (Yamoah et al., 2015).
Prostate cancer tends to be aggressive among the African American men which increase the mortality rates. The aggressive nature of the cancer was initially linked to delayed presentation and inadequate screening however research reveals that African American men have a higher incidence of metastatic disease across all age groups (Yamoah et al., 2015). Tumors among the population tend to have higher levels of biomarkers which suggests a more aggressive disease. The racial divide has been reducing since there is a decrease in death rate for all men and the reduction rate is higher among the African American men. The survival rate for African American men diagnosed with prostate cancer is five-years which means that an early diagnosis ensures that the men survive for an extra five years.
The increased prevalence of prostate cancer among African American men can be linked to a lack of access to healthcare, unhealthy
lifestyles and limited information about the disease (Taylor et al., 2016). The possible solutions that can reduce the prevalence of the disease are the promotion of a healthy diet and patient education on prostate cancer screening. The most ideal approach is patient education because it can improve the rate of PSA screening among African Americans. PSA screening is essential because it helps in early diagnosis and increases the chances of treating prostate cancer (Fedewa, Ward, Brawley & Jemal, 2017). Screening generally reduces the number of people who succumb to disease as well as the number of people who develop the disease. Nevertheless, the PSA test may predispose patients to false-positive results that create a need for extra tests and possible prostate biopsy as well as overdiagnosis and overtreatment causing erectile dysfunction and incontinence.
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Research indicates that knowledge helps in the decision-making process of deciding whether or not to participate in prostate cancer screening (Owens et al., 2015). It is also essential to inform those intending to get screened for prostate cancer on the limitations and advantages of the screening procedures. For instance, black men should begin their screening at 45 years and 40 years for men with a family history of family cancer. Black men are categorized as at-risk group and education will help them make informed decisions on screening.
To establish the effectiveness of patient education among African American men a PICOT statement will be used. The PICOT statement is:
Among African American men (P), does patient education (I) compared to no education (C) on prostate cancer screening improve the rate of PSA screening (O) within a period of six months (T)?
Patient education incorporates health policies and goals that ensure health care equity. For African Americans, limited knowledge of prostate cancer has been cited as a cause of a higher disease incidence. Patient education will help them make informed decisions. It will help them gain more insight on care and potential treatment options as well as adopt PSA screening as a measure to detect prostate cancer on time and enhance their quality of life.
Fedewa, S. A., Ward, E. M., Brawley, O., & Jemal, A. (2017). Recent patterns of prostate-specific antigen testing for prostate cancer screening in the United States. JAMA internal medicine, 177(7), 1040-1042.
Jemal, A., & Siegel, R. (2019). Focus 7. Social inequalities in cancer burden between Black and White populations in the USA. 150 cours Albert Thomas, 69372 Lyon Cedex 08, France© International Agency for Research on Cancer, 2019 Distributed by WHO Press, World Health Organization, 20 Avenue Appia, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland, 159.
Owens, O. L., Jackson, D. D., Thomas, T. L., Friedman, D. B., & Hébert, J. R. (2015). Prostate cancer knowledge and decision making among African-American men and women in the southeastern United States. International journal of men’s health, 14(1), 55.
Taylor, K. L., Turner, R. O., Davis III, J. L., Johnson, L., Schwartz, M. D., Kerner, J., & Leak, C. (2016). Improving knowledge of the prostate cancer screening dilemma among African American men: an academic-community partnership in Washington, DC. Public Health Reports.
Yamoah, K., Johnson, M. H., Choeurng, V., Faisal, F. A., Yousefi, K., Haddad, Z., & Feldman, M. (2015). Novel biomarker signature that may predict aggressive disease in African American men with prostate cancer. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 33(25), 2789.