Assignment: NURS 5050 Assessing a Healthcare Program/Policy Evaluation
Assignment: NURS 5050 Assessing a Healthcare Program/Policy Evaluation
Great post. I was very captivated by your post because I was unaware of this program’s existence. It is a great program that will greatly serve the public especially diabetic patients who are minimally insured or uninsured. Insulin, a medication that all patients with Type 1 diabetes depend on and some Type 2 diabetic patients need for survival, can be costly, ranging from $50-1000 per 3-unit pen. Also, having health insurance does not guarantee free Insulin, as copay for Insulin can range from $30-$50 per supply (Chesak, 2022). Due to the high insulin prices, including high copay amounts, some insulin-dependent diabetics have resorted to reducing their daily prescribed dosage or entirely skipping doses to extend the use of their supply and minimize cost. This practice is highly discouraged by healthcare professionals. A program like the California Affordable Drug Manufacturing Act, which significantly cut the cost of Insulin to an affordable price point for most Americans, will be instrumental in promoting patient drug compliance by diabetic patients and reducing the damaging effects of non-compliance.
Moreover, due to the high prices of Insulin, uninsured diabetics have been shown to make fewer doctor visits for diabetic management but make 168% more hospital visits than insured diabetics for diabetic-related crises (American Diabetes Association, n.d.). Furthermore, if other states adopt this policy, it will significantly benefit diabetic patients throughout America and challenge big pharmaceutical companies that have monopolized the production of Insulin and retailed it a high price range at the detriment of the public and the economy. I highly applaud the governor of California in his effort to effect a change in the drug market, especially Insulin.
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The cost of diabetes (n.d.). American Diabetes Association. Retrieved on July 29, 2023, from https://diabetes.org/about-us/statistics/cost-diabetes.
Chesak, J. (2022 March). What Does Insulin Cost and What’s Behind the Skyrocketing Prices? very well health. https://www.verywellhealth.com/insulin-prices-how-much-does-insulin-cost-and-why-5081872
Program/policy evaluation is a valuable tool that can help strengthen the quality of programs/policies and improve outcomes for the populations they serve. Program/policy evaluation answers basic questions about program/policy effectiveness. It involves collecting and analyzing information about program/policy activities, characteristics, and outcomes. This information can be used to ultimately improve program services or policy initiatives.
Nurses can play a very important role assessing program/policy evaluation for the same reasons that they can be so important to program/policy design. Nurses bring expertise and patient advocacy that can add significant insight and impact. In this Assignment, you will practice applying this expertise and insight by selecting an existing healthcare program or policy evaluation and reflecting on the criteria used to measure the effectiveness of the program/policy.
Review the Healthcare Program/Policy Evaluation Analysis Template provided in the Resources.
Select an existing healthcare program or policy evaluation or choose one of interest to you and get approval to use it from your Instructor.
Review the healthcare program or policy evaluation and reflect on the criteria used to measure the effectiveness of the program or policy described.
The Assignment: (2–3 pages)
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Based on the program or policy evaluation you selected, complete the Healthcare Program/Policy Evaluation Analysis Template. Be sure to address the following:
Describe the healthcare program or policy outcomes.
How was the success of the program or policy measured?
How many people were reached by the program or policy selected?
How much of an impact was realized with the program or policy selected?
At what point in program implementation was the program or policy evaluation conducted?
What data was used to conduct the program or policy evaluation?
What specific information on unintended consequences was identified?
What stakeholders were identified in the evaluation of the program or policy? Who would benefit most from the results and reporting of the program or policy evaluation? Be specific and provide examples.
Did the program or policy meet the original intent and objectives? Why or why not?
Would you recommend implementing this program or policy in your place of work? Why or why not?
Identify at least two ways that you, as a nurse advocate, could become involved in evaluating a program or policy after 1 year of implementation.
Spirituality is the way to find meaning, hope, comfort, and inner peace in life. Many people find spirituality through religion. Some people find it through music, art, or a connection with nature. Others find it in their values and principles. Spirituality involves the recognition of a feeling or sense or belief that there is something greater than myself, something more to being human than sensory experience, and that the greater whole of which we are part is cosmic or divine in nature.
Healthy spirituality gives a sense of peace, wholeness, and balance among the physical, emotional, social, and spiritual aspects of our lives. However, for most people, the path to such spirituality passes through struggles and suffering and often includes experiences that are frightening and painful. Positive beliefs, comfort, and strength gained from religion, meditation, and prayer can contribute to well-being. It may even promote healing. Improving your spiritual health may not cure an illness, but it may help you feel better.
Patients who are spiritual may utilize their beliefs in coping with illness, pain, and life stresses. Some studies indicate that those who are spiritual tend to have a more positive outlook and a better quality of life (Bogue, 2020).
Similar to other caring activities and procedures, spiritual care improves people’s spiritual well-being and performance as well as the quality of their spiritual life. Spiritual care has positive effects on individuals’ stress responses, and spiritual well-being such as the balance between physical, psychosocial, and spiritual aspects of self, a sense of integrity and excellence, and interpersonal relationships. Spiritual well-being is important for an individual’s health potential and the experience of illness/hospitalization can threaten the optimum achievement of this potential. Professional nursing embraces spiritual care as a dimension of practice.
Nurses’ practice patterns in the area of spiritual care can be grouped into two categories including religious and nonreligious interventions. Religious interventions include treating patients’ religious beliefs without prejudice, providing them with opportunities for connecting with God and expressing their values and beliefs, helping them practice their religion, and referring them to clerical and religious leaders (O’Brien, et al., 2019). Nonreligious interventions include nurses’ presence for patients and their families, making direct eye contact when communicating with patients, sympathizing with patients and their families, listening to patients and their families attentively, and having love and enthusiasm for patients.
Although spiritual care is meant to help people, I frequently gain as a nurse. Interpersonal trust and a connection with the patient require high emotional intelligence. It’s important to realize that spirituality isn’t always theological care (Ross et al., 2018). Whereas the healthcare industry easily incorporates spirituality into therapy, spiritual care is essential in all sectors of operation. For the sake of our clients, we as caregivers must respect spiritual support, learn the required skills, and schedule time to satisfy these needs.
Bogue, D. W., & Hogan, M. (2020). Practicing dignity: An introduction to Christian values and decision making in Health Care. Retrieved from https://lc.gcumedia.com/phi413v/practicing-dignity-an-introduction-to-christian-values-and-decision-making-in-health-care/v1.1/#/chapter/1
O’Brien, M., Kinloch, K., Groves, K., & Jack, B. (2019, August 9). Meeting patients’ spiritual needs during end of life care: A qualitative study of nurses’ and healthcare professionals’ perceptions of spiritual care training. Edge Hill University. Retrieved from https://research.edgehill.ac.uk/en/publications/meeting-patients-spiritual-needs-during-end-of-life-care-a-qualit-2
Ross , L., McSherry, W., Giske, T., Van Leeuwen, R., Schep-Akkerman, A., Koslander, T., Hall, J., Ostergaard Steenfeldt , V., & Jarvis, P. (2018, August). Nursing and midwifery students’ perceptions of spirituality, spiritual care, and spiritual care competency: A prospective, Longitudinal, correlational European study. Nurse education today. Retrieved from https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29763841/
Evaluation of health policies and programs is critical as it assists in improving the outcomes and effectiveness of such initiatives on target population. Evaluation entails collections and analysis of information concerning policy features activities and results so that stakeholders can enhance the initiative. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate a program on HIV/AIDS aimed at reducing the spread of the disease by the International Association of Physicians in AIDS Care (AIPAC) to ascertain its effectiveness
|Healthcare Program/Policy Evaluation||International Association of Physicians in AIDS Care (IAPAC) Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) as a health issue has different aspects that include social, political and economic impacts. IAPAC is an association of physicians established in 1995 with the aim of representing HIV-treating doctors and allied healthcare providers across the world.|
|Description||The IAPAC program focuses on a host of components on HIV, right from treatment and prevention to developing a heterogeneous response to HIV. The aim of the IAPAC program and institution is to development of normative guidance, carrying out capacity building activities and engagement in advocacy to support efforts to control the HIV epidemic at all levels.|
|How was the success of the program or policy measured?||IAPAC program utilizes its annual Adherence Conference to evaluate or assess the success of its initiatives. The objectives of the conference include assessing effectiveness of self-reports, evaluating the use of clinical trials in relation to objective adherence and use of other evidence-based interventions. Therefore, measuring the success of the program is critical to its overall effectiveness on the target population.|
|How many people were reached by the program or policy selected? How much of an impact was realized with the program or policy selected?||The IAPAC program has reached millions of individuals in different parts of the world living with HIV/AIDS. According to the World Health Organization (WHO) close to 40 million people were living with HIV/AIDS. Further, about 1.7 million get infected each year. All these people are potential beneficiaries of the program (IAPAC, 2021). The IAPAC has services in five regions across the world. These include Africa, which is the most affected, Asia/Pacific, Latin America, North America, and Europe. The program’s impacts include reducing AIDS-related deaths by close to 35% between 2010 and 2017, and preventing new child infections by close to 1.5 million incidents (Brazier et al., 2019). The program has allowed countries to develop effective interventions to prevent further spread of the condition among vulnerable population through resource provision.|
|At what point in program implementation was the program or policy evaluation conducted?||Evaluation of the IAPAC program is done annually through its Adherence Conference where new objectives are set for the coming year. This implies that each year, the stakeholders review the program and seek better ways to enhance its effectiveness to the targeted population (IAPAC, 2021b).|
|What data was used to conduct the program or policy evaluation?||Program evaluation focuses on various aspects that include processes, resource allocation, feedback and overall impact on target population. Program implementers attain this data through surveys where they collect both qualitative and quantitative information. IAPAC program has used all these approaches to evaluate the impact of this initiative. For instance, it has conducted surveys by contracting firms to evaluate the effects of its interventions in five different regions around the world. These surveys were critical as they revealed significant information on various components like health status, adherence and tolerance to present regime and side effects of different HIV/AIDS medications, and resistance in HIV/AIDS medications.|
|What specific information on unintended consequences were identified?||The program’s unintended consequences included increased stigmatization and discrimination of individuals with HIV/AIDS that reduce the use of services rolled out through the initiative. IAPAC also observes that the program’s rollout also increased isolation and marginalization of individuals with the condition. The program’s rollout also affected the ability of HIV/AIDS patients to lead healthy lives. A core aspect of the unintended effects of the program was the passage of legislations in over 32 states and two territories in the U.S. that criminalize the failure to disclose an individual’s HIV status (HIV.GOV, n.d). Before the program, many states did not have these laws.|
|What stakeholders were identified in the evaluation of the program or policy? Who would benefit most from the results and reporting of the program or policy evaluation? Be specific and provide examples.||HIV/AIDS affects different types of stakeholders and it is essential to engage, coordinate with, and mobilize them to encounter the disease. Stakeholders in such programs play different roles. Therefore, it is essential to develop, maintain, and leverage both formal and informal interactions among the different stakeholders; right from government agencies to civil society (IAPAC, 2021). The program’s stakeholders include individuals living with HIV/AIDS, healthcare workers, governments and their agencies, local community leaders, medical associations, nursing association and faith-based organizations as well as nongovernmental bodies. Individuals living with HIV/AIDS and their families, healthcare workers, and government would benefit the most from effective outcomes of this program. People living with HIV/AIDS benefit through access to better treatment regimes, healthy living information, and increased evidence on the best way to manage the condition (Kaiser Family Foundation, 2019). Healthcare workers attain benefits as they understand new treatment trends and how to deal with patients. Healthcare workers benefit from more knowledge on attainment of safety measures to counter the problem.|
|Did the program or policy meet the original intent and objectives? Why or why not?||The program’s ambitious but achievable targets require more resources and involvement of more stakeholders. Basing on targets by the UNAIDS, the program hoped to reduce infections, increase access to antiretroviral therapy and more suppression of the virus. The program hoped to attain all these by close to 90% by 2020 (IAPAC, 2021). However, this has not happened since not close to 90% of individuals with HIV/AIDS across the world have access to quality antiretroviral treatment. For instance, the success in saving lives does not align with the overall goal of reducing new HIV infections. Further, stigma and discrimination are still a significant concern with women and girls being disproportionately impacted by the disease in different parts of the world, especially in developing countries. The program may have attained close to 75% of its original intent and requires more efforts to achieve the set objectives (IAPAC, 2021).|
|Would you recommend implementing this program or policy in your place of work? Why or why not?||The program continues to register success in different countries and regions across the world because of its benefits and efforts to reduce HIV/AIDS and its effects to populations. The IAPAC developed this program for an international perspective and not for institutional implementation. Therefore, while I would recommend the program for the workplace, it is not feasibility because of its overall scope. I would not recommend it because it requires more resources and involvement of different stakeholders, which the organization lacks the capacity to rollout.|
|Identify at least two ways that you, as a nurse advocate, could become involved in evaluating a program or policy after one year of implementation.||Nurses can apply similar principles in assessing the impact and effectiveness of the program just like the evaluate clinical interventions, processes and procedures (Milstead & Short, 2019). Nurses are critical players in policy planning and evaluation with the aims of promoting and illustrating leadership among professional nurses and meeting the quadruple aims of healthcare. Nurses possess knowledge, experience and skills that allow them to participate in policy evaluation in different ways that include developing interventions to assess the effectiveness of the set policies (Milstead & Short, 2019). Nurses can also leverage their skills to develop better ways of engaging stakeholders like legislators to establish policies that align with the healthcare needs of their respective populations.|
|General Notes/Comments||The IAPAC program is an initiative whose mission is to enhance access to and improve the quality of life of individuals living with HIV/AIDS in different parts of the world. The program’s focus includes improving the quality of prevention, care, and intervention regimens offered to individuals living with and impacted by HIV and the associated comorbidities. The program is an initiative where the U.S. plays a critical role in providing resources from human expertise to material input to reduce the rate of infections and other components of HIV/AIDS around the world.|
Policy evaluation allows stakeholders to assess the effectiveness of a health care program to enhance quality and delivery of care. The evaluation of this policy shows that significant strides have been made and achieved in controlling the prevalence of HIV/AIDS across the world. The implication is that health care policies should focus on communities and individuals that require interventions to improve access to health services. The policy has played a critical role in reducing the effects of HIV/AIDS in the world, especially the worst hit areas in developing world.
Brazier, E., Maruri, F., Duda, S. N., Tymejczyk, O., Wester, C. W., Somi, G., … & Wools‐Kaloustian, K. (2019). Implementation of
“Treat‐all” at adult HIV care and treatment sites in the Global Ie DEA Consortium: results from the Site Assessment Survey. Journal of the International AIDS Society, 22(7), e25331. doi: 10.1002/jia2.25331
HIV.GOV (n.d). U.S. Government Global HIV/AIDS Activities.
International Association of Providers of AIDS Care (IAPAC) (2021). About: History.
International Association of Providers of AIDS Care (IAPAC) (2021b). Adherence 2021.
Kaiser Family Foundation (KFF) (2019). The U.S. Government and Global Health.
Milstead, J.A., & Short, N.M. (2019). Health policy and politics: A nurse’s guide (6th ed). A. Derouin (Ed.). Health policy and Social
program evaluation (pp. 116-1214). Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.
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