Assignment: Literature Review: The Use of Clinical System to Improve Outcomes and Efficiencies

  According to Marr(n.d.), technology has made healthcare trends in today’s world much more popular and in some situations, entertaining. Some of the biggest trends of 2022 include remote telehealth visits, extended or virtual reality clinical settings for educational purposes, interpreting medical information through artificial intelligence and machines, digital twinning which literally makes a twin virtual patients and clinical situations or even specific organs and individualized treatments/genomics that can target specific problems and focus on them rather than a broad medication or treatment plan. I have to say that in my current facility we do not have any of these trends mentioned above, however in nursing school I did use simulations online for clinical simulations and we had computer controlled mannequins that would have medical problems that we would have to treat and solve while being watched and graded. Our CPR training at my workplace is very much like that though, we work through simulations on the computer and then are tested on adult and pediatric mannequins for compressions and airway management. There are many benefits of virtual simulations that can mimic real life clinical situations because it gives the healthcare provider a chance to think critically, assess and treat a patient without causing any actual harm to a real patient until they are ready (Abas & Juma, 2016). One of the biggest challenges that some of these trends pose, is learning how to utilize them correctly and efficiently, which would require team members to have proper training and know how to troubleshoot any technological problems that would arise. One of the biggest benefits is that these advances in technology hugely positively impact patient outcomes but pose a risk as well because any type of technology can be at risk of a data breech (Rider & Schertzer, 2021). I honestly believe that all of the trends I mentioned above are greatly beneficial to improving patient care, overall patient outcomes, improves quality of education and improves safety, reduces error and ultimately builds the confidence of those who are learning. But, we have to remember that we are in a real world with real people and real feelings, I think sometimes we get all too comfortable with technology and it disconnects us from reality, so although technology can be a huge benefit it needs to always be used wisely, as too much of a good thing can sometimes be a and things if not used properly.

References

Abas, T., & Juma, F. Z. (2016). Benefits of simulation training in medical education. Advances in Medical Education and Practice, Volume 7, 399–400. https://doi.org/10.2147/amep.s110386

Marr, B. (n.d.). The Five Biggest Healthcare Tech Trends In 2022. Forbes. Retrieved April 6, 2023, from https://www.forbes.com/sites/bernardmarr/2022/01/10/the-five-biggest-healthcare-tech-trends-in-2022/?sh=724d101254d0.

Rider, A., & Schertzer, K. (2021). Quality Improvement in Medical Simulation. PubMed; StatPearls Publishing. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK551497/

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Assignment: Literature Review: The Use of Clinical System to Improve Outcomes and Efficiencies

Assignment: Literature Review: The Use of Clinical System to Improve Outcomes and Efficiencies

Assignment: Literature Review: The Use of Clinical Systems to Improve Outcomes and Efficiencies

New technology—and the application of existing technology—only appears in healthcare settings after
careful and significant research. The stakes are high, and new clinical systems need to offer evidence of
positive impact on outcomes or efficiencies.
Nurse informaticists and healthcare leaders formulate clinical system strategies. As these strategies are
often based on technology trends, informaticists and others have then benefited from consulting existing
research to inform their thinking.
In this Assignment, you will review existing research focused on the application of clinical systems. After
reviewing, you will summarize your findings.

To Prepare:

 Review the Resources and reflect on the impact of clinical systems on outcomes and efficiencies
within the context of nursing practice and healthcare delivery.
 Conduct a search for recent (within the last 5 years) research focused on the application of
clinical systems. The research should provide evidence to support the use of one type of clinical
system to improve outcomes and/or efficiencies, such as “the use of personal health records or
portals to support patients newly diagnosed with diabetes.”
 Identify and select 4 peer-reviewed research articles from your research.

 For information about annotated bibliographies,
visit https://academicguides.waldenu.edu/writingcenter/assignments/annotatedbibliographies
The Assignment: (4-5 pages not including the title and reference page)
In a 4- to 5-page paper, synthesize the peer-reviewed research you reviewed. Format your Assignment as
an Annotated Bibliography. Be sure to address the following:
 Identify the 4 peer-reviewed research articles you reviewed, citing each in APA format.
 Include an introduction explaining the purpose of the paper.
 Summarize each study, explaining the improvement to outcomes, efficiencies, and lessons
learned from the application of the clinical system each peer-reviewed article described. Be
specific and provide examples.
 In your conclusion, synthesize the findings from the 4 peer-reviewed research articles.
 Use APA format and include a title page.
 Use the Safe Assign Drafts to check your match percentage before submitting your work.

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Learning Resources

Required Readings
McGonigle, D., & Mastrian, K. G. (2017). Nursing informatics and the foundation of knowledge (4th ed.).
Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.
 Chapter 14, “The Electronic Health Record and Clinical Informatics” (pp. 267–287)
 Chapter 15, “Informatics Tools to Promote Patient Safety and Quality Outcomes” (pp. 293–317)
 Chapter 16, “Patient Engagement and Connected Health” (pp. 323–338)
 Chapter 17, “Using Informatics to Promote Community/Population Health” (pp. 341–355)
 Chapter 18, “Telenursing and Remote Access Telehealth” (pp. 359–388)

Dykes, P. C., Rozenblum, R., Dalal, A., Massaro, A., Chang, F., Clements, M., Collins, S. …Bates, D.
W. (2017). Prospective evaluation of a multifaceted intervention to improve outcomes in intensive care:
The Promoting Respect and Ongoing Safety Through Patient Engagement Communication and
Technology Study. Critical Care Medicine, 45(8), e806–e813. doi:10.1097/CCM.0000000000002449

HealthIT.gov. (2018c). What is an electronic health record (EHR)? Retrieved from
https://www.healthit.gov/faq/what-electronic-health-record-ehr

Rao-Gupta, S., Kruger, D. Leak, L. D., Tieman, L. A., & Manworren, R. C. B. (2018). Leveraging
interactive patient care technology to Improve pain management engagement. Pain Management Nursing,
19(3), 212–221.

Skiba, D. (2017). Evaluation tools to appraise social media and mobile applications. Informatics, 4(3),
32–40.

Required Media
Laureate Education (Producer). (2018). Public Health Informatics [Video file]. Baltimore, MD: Author.
Accessible player
Laureate Education (Producer). (2018). Electronic Records and Managing IT Change [Video file].
Baltimore, MD: Author.
Accessible player

The patient portal is a secure online that enables patients to access their health data whenever they require it. It has 24/7 accessibility, which reduces the need for patients to contact their primary care provider’s (PCP) office to inquire about their scheduled appointments or their prescribed medications (Sieck et al., 2018). The portal lets them view and download health information such as immunization records, diagnostic test results, allergies, prescriptions, previous PCP visits, instructions and appointment notes, discharge summaries, and billing information(Sieck et al., 2018). Patient portals increase patients’ access to health care and health information, thus improving patients’ outcomes and functional status and decreasing healthcare costs. Patients with chronic conditions benefit the most from using the portals as they are the highest consumers of healthcare.

 The purpose of this paper is to summarize peer-reviewed articles that examine the impact of patient portals in improving patient outcomes and outline the lessons learned from the application of patient portals in each article.

Alturkistani, A., Qavi, A., Anyanwu, P. E., Greenfield, G., Greaves, F., & Costelloe, C. (2020). Patient portal functionalities and patient outcomes among patients with diabetes: Systematic review. Journal of medical Internet research22(9), e18976. https://doi.org/10.2196/18976

Alturkistani et al. (2020) conducted a systematic review to outline the evidence concerning the use of patient portal use and patient portal functionality use and their reported connection with health and outcomes in health care quality among adult diabetic patients. The review included twelve studies, which reported: The overall patient portal use and its connection with diabetes health and health quality outcomes; E-messaging/email use– related outcomes; Prescription refill–related outcomes. The reported health outcomes included the association of patient portal use with blood pressure, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and BMI.

The studies in the systematic review reported that patient portals and patient portal functionality attributed to improved health outcomes, such as glycemic control in DM patients. Besides, secure messaging, emailing, and repeat prescription ordering using the patient portal were connected with enhanced glycemic control, and patient outcomes seemed to improve with increased portal use. It was also established that the use of the patient portal might be connected with enhanced low-density lipoprotein cholesterol outcomes and blood pressure control. From this article, we learn that patient portals use and patient portal functionality can impact the utilization of health care services and can result in increased office visits and reduced emergency department visits. The article establishes that patient portal use is connected with improved quality of care for diabetic patients, thus improving their health outcomes.

Carini, E., Villani, L., Pezzullo, A. M., Gentili, A., Barbara, A., Ricciardi, W., & Boccia, S. (2021). The impact of digital patient portals on health outcomes, system efficiency, and patient attitudes: Updated systematic literature review. Journal of Medical Internet Research23(9), e26189. https://doi.org/10.2196/26189

Carini et al. (2021) conducted a systematic review to summarize the available evidence on the effect of patient portals on health outcomes and health care efficiency and to explore user characteristics, attitudes, and satisfaction. The researchers used primary studies discussing the impact of the adoption of the patient portal with regard to health outcomes, efficiencies in health care, and patient attitudes and satisfaction. The study found that patient portals were associated with improved preventive behaviors among patients and improved control of chronic conditions with enhanced control of diabetes parameters and asthma flares. In addition, patient portals were associated with positive results in control and maintenance of diseases and improved adherence to treatment.         Patient portals also reduced the number of missed appointments.

From the article, we learn that the patient portal is usually designed to minimize inappropriate health care utilization. However, barriers are limiting the utilization of portals, including user-related factors, such as time constraints, lack of interest in managing their disease, and inadequate digital knowledge. There are also clinician-related barriers, such as age and attitude toward the portal, as well as technology-related barriers, such as limited internet access, limited capacity to use technology, and security concerns. Therefore, health organizations should address privacy and security concerns and ensure patients and providers can utilize technological appliances when introducing patient portals in their settings.

Dendere, R., Slade, C., Burton-Jones, A., Sullivan, C., Staib, A., & Janda, M. (2019). Patient Portals Facilitating Engagement With Inpatient Electronic Medical Records: A Systematic Review. Journal of medical Internet research21(4), e12779. https://doi.org/10.2196/12779

Dendere et al. (2019) sought to review literature examining patient portals connected to an EMR in inpatient settings, including the portals’ role in patient engagement and their impact on health care delivery to establish factors and best practices for successful portal implementation. The study employed a systematic review of the literature. It found that patient portals improved patient engagement, patient safety, medication adherence, and patient-provider communication. Although patients and providers perceived that portals could improve patient care, they also thought it could cause anxiety. We learn from the article that patient portals are beneficial as they have improved medication adherence, promoted the discovery of medical errors, and enhanced patient-provider communication. Besides, we learn that improving patient engagement is an aim of patient portals, but the providers’ engagement is equally important as patients approach them with portal-related questions.

Han, H. R., Gleason, K. T., Sun, C. A., Miller, H. N., Kang, S. J., Chow, S., … & Bauer, T. (2019). Using patient portals to improve patient outcomes: systematic review. JMIR human factors6(4), e15038. https://doi.org/10.2196/15038

Han et al. (2019) conducted a systematic review to synthesize evidence concerning patient portals’ characteristics and psychobehavioral and clinical outcomes. The study found that most portals employed tailored alerts or educational resources tailored to a patient’s disease. The use of patient portals contributed to improvements in a myriad of psychobehavioral outcomes, including health knowledge, medication adherence, decision making, self-efficacy, and preventive service use. The impact of the patient portal on health outcomes included improved glycemic control, blood pressure, cholesterol, and weight loss. The study’s findings demonstrate the patient portal as a promising approach to improving particular psychological outcomes and health behaviors through simple strategies such as individually tailored messages, refill services, and communication between the patient and the PCP. We learn from the article that understanding the role of patient portals as a useful intervention approach is crucial to encouraging patients to be actively involved in their health care.

Conclusion

            The above articles examined the impact of using patient portals in improving health outcomes, including outcomes of diabetes patients. The articles establish that patient portals enhance patient engagement and provider-patient communication resulting in improved preventive behaviors, control of chronic diseases, and health outcomes. Patient portals also enhance care safety by reducing medical errors and increasing medication adherence resulting in better health outcomes. However, for the maximum adoption of patient portals, organizations should address digital knowledge, privacy, and security issues to increase engagement from patients and providers.

References

Alturkistani, A., Qavi, A., Anyanwu, P. E., Greenfield, G., Greaves, F., & Costelloe, C. (2020). Patient portal functionalities and patient outcomes among patients with diabetes: Systematic review. Journal of medical Internet research22(9), e18976. https://doi.org/10.2196/18976

Carini, E., Villani, L., Pezzullo, A. M., Gentili, A., Barbara, A., Ricciardi, W., & Boccia, S. (2021). The impact of digital patient portals on health outcomes, system efficiency, and patient attitudes: Updated systematic literature review. Journal of Medical Internet Research23(9), e26189. https://doi.org/10.2196/26189

Dendere, R., Slade, C., Burton-Jones, A., Sullivan, C., Staib, A., & Janda, M. (2019). Patient Portals Facilitating Engagement With Inpatient Electronic Medical Records: A Systematic Review. Journal of medical Internet research21(4), e12779. https://doi.org/10.2196/12779

Han, H. R., Gleason, K. T., Sun, C. A., Miller, H. N., Kang, S. J., Chow, S., … & Bauer, T. (2019). Using patient portals to improve patient outcomes: systematic review. JMIR human factors6(4), e15038. https://doi.org/10.2196/15038

Sieck, C. J., Hefner, J. L., & McAlearney, A. S. (2018). Improving the patient experience through patient portals: Insights from experienced portal users. Patient Experience Journal5(3), 47-54. https://pxjournal.org/journal/vol5/iss3/8

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