Assignment Journal Of Health Care Organization Provision And Financing Article Analysis
Article Analysis 1
|Article Citation and Permalink (APA format)||Basch, E., Deal, A. M., Kris, M. G., Scher, H. I., Hudis, C. A., Sabbatini, P., Schrag, D. (2016). Symptom Monitoring With Patient-Reported Outcomes During Routine Cancer Treatment: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology, 34(6), 557–565.
|Hailu, Fikadu Balcha et al. “Diabetes Self-Management Education (DSME) – Effect on Knowledge, Self-Care Behavior, and Self-Efficacy Among Type 2 Diabetes Patients in Ethiopia: A Controlled Clinical Trial.” Diabetes, metabolic syndrome and obesity: targets and therapy vol. 12 2489-2499.
Periasamy, U., Sidik, S. M., Rampal, L., Fadhilah, S. I., Akhtari-Zavare, M., & Mahmud, R. (2017). Effect of chemotherapy counseling by pharmacists on quality of life and psychological outcomes of oncology patients in Malaysia: a randomized control trial. Health and quality of life outcomes, 15(1), 104.
|Broad Topic Area/Title||Symptom monitoring during routine cancer care using patient-reported outcomes.||Effects of diabetes self-management education (DSME) intervention on patients’ self-reported levels of diabetes knowledge, self-care behaviors, and self-efficacy.||Effectiveness of a chemotherapy counseling module by pharmacists among oncology patients.|
|Identify Independent and Dependent Variables and Type of Data for the Variables||Symptoms reporting (discrete data )
Health-related quality of life (HRQL) (Nominal Data)
Emergency room (ER) visits, hospitalizations, and survival (Continuous data).
|Diabetes self-management education (DSME) intervention, Usual care (Discrete data).
Diabetes knowledge, self-care behaviors, and self-efficacy (Nominal data)
|Repetitive Counselling (discrete data)
Quality of life (Nominal data)
Psychological issues (continuous data)
|Population of Interest for the Study||Patients initiating chemotherapy at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSK) in New York for metastatic breast, genitourinary, gynecologic, or lung cancers||Adult patients with T2DM attending Jimma University Medical Centre (JUMC) in Ethiopia.||Malaysia patients above 18 years old in different stages of cancers which undergoing their 1th and 2nd cycles of chemotherapy and able to read.|
Computer –experienced – 539
Computer inexperienced – 227
(150 assigned to STAR and 75 to usual care)
|At endpoint 142
78 intervention group participants
64 comparison group participants
Control = 80
|Sampling Method||Participants were first grouped as computer experienced and computer inexperienced depending on computer and email use and then randomized in respective groups.||Excel’s random number generator assigned 120 patients to intervention group and 120 patients to comparison group||Random sampling was used to group eligible patients.|
|Descriptive Statistics (Mean, Median, Mode; Standard Deviation)
|Mean time on study 7.4 months
Median time was 3.7 months (range, 0.25 to 49)
Mean of 16 clinic visits per patient (range, 1 to 114).
|Mean age 47 (10) years
Mean number of living with diabetes: intervention group 10 (6) years and comparison group 12 (7) years
Intervention group mean diabetes knowledge score, 11.33 out of 20, comparison group, 10.61 out of 20.
Intervention group participants performed foot care for a mean of 5.80 days per week, compared to 5.26 days for the comparison group
|Average age of the respondents was 65 years (mean = 65.49 ± 1.4; 95% CI = 64.08–66.90)
Mean differences of quality of life 81.95
|Mean HRQL scores declined by less in the intervention arm compared with usual care (1.4- v 7.1-point drop; P < .001
Significant differences in quality-adjusted survival were observed during this 1-year period for all patients (mean of 8.0 v 8.7 months; P = .004) and were statistically significant in both subgroups
|Mean DKS score significantly increased by 0.76 in the intervention group and decreased by 0.16 in the comparison group from baseline to endpoint (p = 0.044)
mean number of days per week that the intervention group participants followed specific dietary recommendations significantly increased by 2.65 days from baseline to endpoint (p = 0.019)
|The mean differences of anxiety −0.31, (−0.59–0.03; p = 0.028) and depression −0.56, (−0.85–0.27; p = 0.000) for the intervention group was significantly lower compared to the control group from baseline until 3rd follow up.|
Topic 4 DQ 1
Provide an example of experimental, quasi-experimental, and nonexperimental research from the GCU Library and explain how each research type differs from the others. When replying to peers, evaluate the effectiveness of the research design of the study for two of the examples provided.
REPLY TO DISCUSSION
Experimental Research: Experimental or Trial- Research is a form of research or study in which “the investigator directly controls selected conditions or characteristics of the environment, and observes the effects these changes have on other features of the problem at hand in order to determine causal relations” (Stoica, 2021). As the name implies Experimental research relies on running various tests and trials to come to a conclusion.
Example of an Experimental research study:
The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers has conducted a study to research the effectiveness of cable-driven hip joint
power-assisted exoskeletons. The experiments conducted to research this required three different conditions. The first condition was no exoskeleton, the second was exoskeleton opening and closing, The third condition was the effects of different experimental conditions on human joint angle, carbon dioxide exhalation, and sEMG. The results of these experiments showed the maximum angle difference of hip and knee was almost halved with the exoskeleton (3.6° with VS 6.1° without). Results also showed a 3.5% decrease in the overall carbon dioxide content in exhaled gas. Lastly, results showed The RMS values of the inferior gauze tail muscle and the quadriceps femoris muscle decreased by 51.40% and 42.55%, respectively (Ma et. al, 2022). With this information a conclusion can be reached that cable-driven hip joint power-assisted exoskeletons showed that motion deviation was small, muscle consumption was greatly reduced, and exoskeletons play a good auxiliary role in human walking.
Quasi-Experimental Research: Quasi-Experimental research is a form of study in which the aim is to evaluate interventions but that does not use randomization. “Quasi-experimental studies encompass a broad range of nonrandomized intervention studies. These designs are frequently used when it is not logistically feasible or ethical to conduct a randomized controlled trial” (Harris et. al, 2006).
Example of a Quasi-Experimental research study:
The National University of Singapore conducted a quasi-experimental research study to find the impact of the Scholarly Project® on medical students’ perception of research skills in Vietnam. To test this “A questionnaire evaluating the perception of fourteen research skills was given to participants in the first week, at midterm, and after finishing the Scholarly Project; students assessed their level on each skill using a 5-point Likert scale from 1 (lowest score) to 5 (highest score)” (Nguyen et. al, 2022). The results showed significantly high scores for 11 skills after participation in the Scholarly Project®.
Non-Experimental Research: Non-experimental research is research without the manipulation of independent variables, random assignment of participants to conditions, and/or orders of conditions.
Example of Non-Experimental research study:
A non-experimental research study was conducted by the BMJ journal to measure the effect of including OAT in The Joint Commission’s NPSGs on historically low rates of OAT initiation for individuals with incident atrial fibrillation (AF). This test was conducted using North Carolina State Health Plan claims data from 944 500 individuals enrolled between 1 January 2006 and 31 December 2010, supplemented with data from the Area Resource File and Online Survey, Certification and Reporting data network (Beadles et. al, 2014). The results showed OAT initiation was decreased (26.8%) for eligible individuals with incident atrial fibrilation in 2006–2008 but increased after NPSGs implementation (31.7%, p=0.022). OAT initiation was high but was lowered in the positive control group (67.5% vs 62.0%, p=0.003). Multivariate analysis resulted in a relative 11% (95% CI (4% to 18%), p<0.01) increase in OAT initiation for incident AF patients.
Beadles CA, Hassmiller Lich K, Viera AJ, et alA non-experimental study of oral anticoagulation therapy initiation before and after national patient safety goalsBMJ Open 2014;4:e003960. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2013-003960
Harris, A. D., McGregor, J. C., Perencevich, E. N., Furuno, J. P., Zhu, J., Peterson, D. E., & Finkelstein, J. (2006). The use and interpretation of quasi-experimental studies in medical informatics. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association : JAMIA, 13(1), 16–23. https://doi.org/10.1197/jamia.M1749
Nguyen Tran Minh Duc, Khuu Hoang Viet, & Vuong Thi Ngoc Lan. (2022). Impact of Scholarly Project on students’ perception of research skills: A quasi-experimental study. The Asia Pacific Scholar, 7(4), 50–58. https://doi-org.lopes.idm.oclc.org/10.29060/TAPS.2022-7-4/OA2748
- Ma, A. Zhu, Y. Tu, J. Song, D. Dang and Y. Zhang, “System Design and Experimental Research of Cable-driven Hip Joint Power-assisted Exoskeleton,” 2022 19th International Conference on Ubiquitous Robots (UR), 2022, pp. 237-242, doi: 10.1109/UR55393.2022.9826254.
Stoica, I. (2021). Experimental (Trial) Research. Salem Press Encyclopedia. https://eds-p-ebscohost-com.lopes.idm.oclc.org/eds/detail/detail?vid=1&sid=d01c6dab-6686-47c9-b2fe-2f9a5c973400%40redis&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWRzLWxpdmUmc2NvcGU9c2l0ZQ%3d%3d#AN=89164212&db=ers