Assignment: Health Care Article Analysis and Evaluation of Research Ethics

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Title: Assignment: Health Care Article Analysis and Evaluation of Research Ethics

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Article Analysis and Evaluation of Research Ethics

Article Citation and Permalink(APA format) Article 1Mahanta, B., Das, D. K., Borah, P., Mahanta, P., & Dutta, M. (2021). Knowledge of hand cleanliness among medical students and nurses at tertiary healthcare centre: A cross-sectional study. Open Journal of Psychiatry & Allied Sciences12(1), 43-47.
Point Description
Broad Topic Area/Title Knowledge of hand cleanliness among medical students and nurses at a tertiary healthcare center
Problem Statement(What is the problem research is addressing?) The infection caused by hospital-acquired microbes has been a dynamic problem in healthcare despite the efforts of healthcare organizations to solve the problem. Healthcare-associated infections (HCIAs) are the kinds of infections that occur while the patient is receiving health care (Gupta et al., 2022). These infections are developed within the hospital after 48 hours of admission or within 30 days of being at the health care institution. Various studies contend that the common types of these adverse infections come from the adverse effects of drugs because patients respond differently to drugs. Improving hygiene in healthcare has been one of the main measures taken toward solving the problem of hospital-acquired microbes (Nasution et al., 2019). The increase in the cases of HCIAs has been defined as a reduction in hygiene, while the reduction of these cases is a measure of improved personal hygiene among the nurses and the patients. Therefore, the increase in hand cleanliness among medical students has an impact on the reduction of the infection caused by hospital-acquired microbes.
Purpose Statement(What is the purpose of the study?) Therefore, through this paper, the authors aim to assess the level of understanding and practices of hand hygiene action among medical students and the working nurses.
Research Questions(What questions does the research seek to answer?) The article seeks to find how medical students and nurses understand the importance of hand cleanliness.
Define Hypothesis (Or state the correct hypothesis based upon variables used) The study compared the knowledge of the medical students and working nurses on hygiene to prevent HAI. This implies that the hypothesis could be stated asHo: There is no significant difference in handwashing skills between working nurses and medical nursesH1: There is a significant difference between handwashing skills between working nurses and medical students.
Identify Dependent and Independent Variables and Type of Data for the Variables The dependent variable in this study was the knowledge of working nurses and students on handwashing skills, while the dependent variable was the hand hygiene of the nurses and the medical students.
Population of Interest for Study The study was interested in two different populations. The first group are the students from Tezpur Medical College Hospital and the second group are the students from the same institution.
Sample The study sampled 40 working nurses and 60 MBBS students from Tezpur Medical College Hospital.
Sampling Method The study used a cross-sectional descriptive survey
Identify Data CollectionIdentify how data were collected Questionnaires were used in collecting information from the nurses and students in the institution. Both the nurses and the students were subjected to a similar survey to examine the difference in their understanding of handwashing.
Summarize Data Collection Approach The data collection for this study started by taking the informed consent of the respondents to ascertain their willingness to participate in the study. The questionnaires were then distributed to the target respondents.
Discuss Data AnalysisInclude what types of statistical tests were used for the variables. The data collected were presented using counts and percentages. The Chi-square test was then applied to test the hypothesis with a p-value of less than 0.05. The significant difference in knowledge between the nurses was tested at the 0.05 level of significance.
Summarize Results of Study The study found that 92.08% claimed to have received training on handwashing. Out of this percentage, 55 were medical students, while 37 were working nurses. Besides, 75% of the nursing student knew about handwashing hygiene, while 30% of the nurses knew about handwashing. The study then proved that medical students had a higher knowledge of handwashing compared to nurses. In the comparison of knowledge of medical students and nurses, the study found no significant difference between the understandings of the two groups.
Summary of Assumptions and Limitations Identify the assumptions and limitations from the article.Report other potential assumptions and limitations of your review not listed by the author. The study assumed that all the respondents have a prior knowledge of hygiene in e healthcare and could possibly participate in the survey without much assistance. Time constraint was the main limitation as the respondents had busy schedules within the selected institution.

I support your post that health statistics are used to understand risk factors for communities, track and monitor diseases, see the impact of policy changes, and assess the quality and safety of health care. Health Statistics provide information for understanding, monitoring, improving and planning the use of resources to improve the lives of people, provide services and promote their well-being. Numerical data is widely used in health care because of its objectivity and ability to provide data-driven strategies that can maximize efficiency and measure the health of large populations (NIH, 2020). Statistics are frequently used for quality measurement and improvement, as well as for systematic process control (NIH, 2020). Data on performance and quality indicators is gathered over time and examined to identify specific trends or responses to initiatives. Through health statistics, health care workers and other stakeholders are able to analyze situations, make adjustment where necessary and possibly create or make innovations to suit with needs of the community they serve.


National Library of Medicine (NIH). (2020). Finding and Using Statistics. About Health Statistics. Retrieved January 31, 2023, from,that%20can%20support%20a%20conclusion

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Search the GCU Library and find one new health care article that uses quantitative research. Do not use an article from a previous assignment, or that appears in the Topic Materials or textbook.

Complete an article analysis and ethics evaluation of the research using the “Article Analysis and Evaluation of Research Ethics” template. See Chapter 5 of your textbook as needed, for assistance.

While APA style is not required for the body of this assignment, solid academic writing is expected, and documentation of sources should be presented using APA formatting guidelines, which can be found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center.

This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.

You are required to submit this assignment to LopesWrite. Refer to the LopesWrite Technical Support articles for assistance


A Sample Answer 2 For the Assignment: Assignment: Health Care Article Analysis and Evaluation of Research Ethics

Title: Assignment: Health Care Article Analysis and Evaluation of Research Ethics

Ethical Considerations

The study was comprised of the utmost ethical considerations, with respondent confidentiality being the top priority. All parties involved in the study were ensured that their identity and associated data would remain protected throughout the course of the research and beyond. To ensure a secure handling of confidential information, all collected data was stored safely behind tightly-guarded firewalls and tight authentication protocols. Ultimately, this means participants could maintain a sense of privacy while still contributing to the study in a meaningful way.

Adhering to ethical considerations was of paramount importance in the design of this study. In order to ensure the safety and degree of autonomy for all participants involved, prior to their involvement the participants were supported with adequate information that detailed both the benefits and risks of participating in the investigation. This process was strictly enforced while abiding by international regulations such as The Declaration of Helsinki, as well as local Brazilian guidelines (NR 466/12). Furthermore, it is noteworthy that the protocol and procedures employed were passed and approved by Porto Alegre’s Hospital de Clínicas Institutional Review Board. In order to ensure ethical practices were employed during this study, it was necessary for researchers to obtain informed consent from all the respondents. Every participant was given the opportunity to understand how their participation would affect this research and the ability to withdraw their consent at any time. These considerations were an integral part of upholding ethical responsibilities to each respondent.

In summary, the ethical considerations of the research process must be taken seriously. Confidentiality, informed consent, and providing adequate information are steps that research institutions should take to ensure the rights of their participants are not violated. Confidentiality plays an important role in ensuring all information collected remains confidential, protecting the identity of the participants and their data. Informed consent ensures that participants know what they agree to when taking part in a study and are aware of what participation involves. Lastly, provision of adequate information is essential in explaining why a particular study is important and how it will benefit participants as well as elucidating what risks may come with participation in the research effort. All these considerations go into creating a safe space for participants that respect their autonomy, privacy, and well-being.

You must proofread your paper. But do not strictly rely on your computer’s spell-checker and grammar-checker; failure to do so indicates a lack of effort on your part and you can expect your grade to suffer accordingly. Papers with numerous misspelled words and grammatical mistakes will be penalized. Read over your paper – in silence and then aloud – before handing it in and make corrections as necessary. Often it is advantageous to have a friend proofread your paper for obvious errors. Handwritten corrections are preferable to uncorrected mistakes.

Use a standard 10 to 12 point (10 to 12 characters per inch) typeface. Smaller or compressed type and papers with small margins or single-spacing are hard to read. It is better to let your essay run over the recommended number of pages than to try to compress it into fewer pages.

Likewise, large type, large margins, large indentations, triple-spacing, increased leading (space between lines), increased kerning (space between letters), and any other such attempts at “padding” to increase the length of a paper are unacceptable, wasteful of trees, and will not fool your professor.

The paper must be neatly formatted, double-spaced with a one-inch margin on the top, bottom, and sides of each page. When submitting hard copy, be sure to use white paper and print out using dark ink. If it is hard to read your essay, it will also be hard to follow your argument.


Discussion Questions (DQ)

Initial responses to the DQ should address all components of the questions asked, include a minimum of one scholarly source, and be at least 250 words.
Successful responses are substantive (i.e., add something new to the discussion, engage others in the discussion, well-developed idea) and include at least one scholarly source.
One or two sentence responses, simple statements of agreement or “good post,” and responses that are off-topic will not count as substantive. Substantive responses should be at least 150 words.
I encourage you to incorporate the readings from the week (as applicable) into your responses.

Weekly Participation

Your initial responses to the mandatory DQ do not count toward participation and are graded separately.
In addition to the DQ responses, you must post at least one reply to peers (or me) on three separate days, for a total of three replies.
Participation posts do not require a scholarly source/citation (unless you cite someone else’s work).
Part of your weekly participation includes viewing the weekly announcement and attesting to watching it in the comments. These announcements are made to ensure you understand everything that is due during the week.

APA Format and Writing Quality

Familiarize yourself with APA format and practice using it correctly. It is used for most writing assignments for your degree. Visit the Writing Center in the Student Success Center, under the Resources tab in LoudCloud for APA paper templates, citation examples, tips, etc. Points will be deducted for poor use of APA format or absence of APA format (if required).
Cite all sources of information! When in doubt, cite the source. Paraphrasing also requires a citation.
I highly recommend using the APA Publication Manual, 6th edition.

Use of Direct Quotes

I discourage overutilization of direct quotes in DQs and assignments at the Masters’ level and deduct points accordingly.
As Masters’ level students, it is important that you be able to critically analyze and interpret information from journal articles and other resources. Simply restating someone else’s words does not demonstrate an understanding of the content or critical analysis of the content.
It is best to paraphrase content and cite your source.

LopesWrite Policy

For assignments that need to be submitted to LopesWrite, please be sure you have received your report and Similarity Index (SI) percentage BEFORE you do a “final submit” to me.
Once you have received your report, please review it. This report will show you grammatical, punctuation, and spelling errors that can easily be fixed. Take the extra few minutes to review instead of getting counted off for these mistakes.
Review your similarities. Did you forget to cite something? Did you not paraphrase well enough? Is your paper made up of someone else’s thoughts more than your own?
Visit the Writing Center in the Student Success Center, under the Resources tab in LoudCloud for tips on improving your paper and SI score.

Late Policy

The university’s policy on late assignments is 10% penalty PER DAY LATE. This also applies to late DQ replies.
Please communicate with me if you anticipate having to submit an assignment late. I am happy to be flexible, with advance notice. We may be able to work out an extension based on extenuating circumstances.
If you do not communicate with me before submitting an assignment late, the GCU late policy will be in effect.
I do not accept assignments that are two or more weeks late unless we have worked out an extension.
As per policy, no assignments are accepted after the last day of class. Any assignment submitted after midnight on the last day of class will not be accepted for grading.


Communication is so very important. There are multiple ways to communicate with me:
Questions to Instructor Forum: This is a great place to ask course content or assignment questions. If you have a question, there is a good chance one of your peers does as well. This is a public forum for the class.
Individual Forum: This is a private forum to ask me questions or send me messages. This will be checked at least once every 24 hours.

Epidemiology is the method used to find the causes of health outcomes and diseases in a population. Epidemiology is the scientific study of distribution and determinants of health -related states and events in a specified population in control of health problems. Epidemiology is a quantitative discipline that uses a working knowledge of probability, statistics and sound research methods. It is a method based on developing and testing hypothesis grounded in scientific fields such as biology ,behavioral sciences and ergonomics to explain health – related states and events . It is an integral component of public health, providing the foundation for directing practical and appropriate public health action based on science and reasoning Epidemiological data are of great value for emergency preparedness and response , understanding disease models that enables forecasting.

We obtain epidemiological data primarily through the Internet but way through which the data are presented is different among the institutions. There is a strong need for data sharing practices . Epidemiological data have a variety of uses from public health perspective, they can be used to gain an understanding of population – level disease progression. This understanding can in turn be used to aid in decision making and allocation of resources. Recent outbreaks like Covid 19 and Elolam have demonstrated the value of accessible epidemiological data for emergency preparedness and the need for better data sharing . These data may influence vaccine distribution and hospitals can anticipate surge capacity during an outbreak allowing them to obtain extra temporary help if they may need .

From researchers perspective, high quality reference data are needed to enable prediction and forecasting. These data can be used to parameterize compartmentalised models . The Internet has become the most predominant way to publish ,share and collect epidemiological data . Despite the strong need to share and consume data , there are many legal ,technical, political and cultural challenges in implementing a standardized epidemiological data. The methods by which data are presented to the public differ significantly among data – sharing institutions like public health departments, ministries of health, data collection services. This problems challenges in data sharing and collection from institutions that differ can be resolved, basing from this analysis, we offer a framework of best practices comprised of modern standards that should be adhered to when releasing epidemiological data of the public , this will enable a good future for accurate and high – confidence epidemiological data and analysis.

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