Article Analysis And Evaluation Of Research Ethics

Article Analysis And Evaluation Of Research Ethics

Search the GCU Library and find one new health care article that uses quantitative research. Do not use an article from a previous assignment, or that appears in the Topic Materials or textbook.

Complete an article analysis and ethics evaluation of the research using the “Article Analysis and Evaluation of Research Ethics” template. See Chapter 5 of your textbook as needed, for assistance.

A Sample Answer For the Assignment: Article Analysis And Evaluation Of Research Ethics

Title:  Article Analysis And Evaluation Of Research Ethics

Article Analysis and Evaluation of Research Ethics

Article Citation and Permalink (APA format)Article 1     Ribeiro, I. L. A., Bellissimo-Rodrigues, W. T., Mussolin, M. G., Innocentini, L. M. A. R., Marangoni, A. T. D., Macedo, L. D., … & Bellissimo-Rodrigues, F. (2022). Impact of a dental care intervention on the hospital mortality of critically ill patients admitted to intensive care units: A quasi-experimental study. American Journal of Infection Control. Permalink: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajic.2022.01.022  
PointDescription
Broad Topic Area/TitleThe Impact of a dental care intervention on the hospital mortality of critically ill patients admitted to intensive care units.
Problem Statement (What is the problem research is addressing?)The research is addressing the problem of dental hygiene among critically ill patients in the intensive care units. There is a growing body of evidence indicating that dental care is an important consideration for critically ill patients in the intensive care unit (ICU). A number of studies have demonstrated that poor oral hygiene can lead to a number of serious health complications, including nosocomial infections, pneumonia, and ventilator-associated respiratory tract infections. Furthermore, several studies have shown that dental care can improve patient outcomes, including reducing ICU length of stay and hospital costs. Given the growing body of evidence supporting the importance of dental care for critically ill patients in the ICU, it is surprising that this type of care is often overlooked or considered unimportant by many healthcare providers.
Purpose Statement (What is the purpose of the study?)The aim of the study is to assess the effect of dental care on the risk of mortality and ventilator-associated pneumonia in critically ill patients (VAP).
Research Questions (What questions does the research seek to answer?)Does poor oral health considered a risk factor among critically-ill patients in the intensive care units?Does that practice of adding dentist to the intensive care teams prevent respiratory tract infections among patients?Does the provision of dental care to the critically-ill patients reduce their risk of death?
Define Hypothesis (Or state the correct hypothesis based upon variables used)Null Hypothesis: There is no significant impact of dental care intervention on the hospital mortality for critically ill patients admitted to intensive care units. Alternative Hypothesis: There is significant impact of dental care intervention on the hospital mortality for critically ill patients admitted to intensive care units.
Identify Dependent and Independent Variables and Type of Data for the VariablesDependent variables Rates of dental care interventions (continuous data) Independent variable Rates of mortality (continuous data)
Population of Interest for StudyCritically ill patients in the intensive care units
SampleThe sample size for the study was 355. In other words, 355 patients were identified from the intensive care units.
Sampling MethodSimple random sampling
Identify Data Collection Identify how data were collectedThe data was derived from 5,147 dental procedures that were performed among the patients in the intensive care units. The recorded data was then analyzed.
Summarize Data Collection ApproachThe study’s data was collected from 5,147 dental procedures performed in the critical care unit for two hospitals. After each procedure, the rate of mortality was recorded. The data collection was done between 2016 and 2019. The procedure was repeated for the sample population that was identified.
Discuss Data Analysis Include what types of statistical tests were used for the variables.The process of data analysis involved descriptive statistics to show the attributes of data and to determine the best inferential statistics to use. Researchers also employed time-series analysis: The time series indicated that ICU mortality were 36.11%, 32.71%, and 32.30% three years before interventions and 28.71% during and after the interventions. Autoregressive integrated moving average was mostly used in the process of data analysis.
  Summarize Results of Study                   The study found that critically ill patients who received a dental care intervention had a significantly reduced hospital mortality rate as compared to those who did not receive the intervention. The authors suggest that providing dental care to critically ill patients may be an important way to reduce their risk of death.A dental care intervention focused on oral cleanliness and periodontal therapy delivered to critically sick patients on a regular basis by dentists may reduce their chance of dying in the ICU.
Summary of Assumptions and Limitations Identify the assumptions and limitations from the article. Report other potential assumptions and limitations of your review not listed by the author.  The study made a number of assumptions in its investigation of the impact of a dental care intervention on the hospital mortality of critically ill patients. First, the study assumed that all critically ill patients would have access to dental care. Second, the study assumed that all patients would receive the same level of care. Third, the study did not adjust for potentially important confounders, such as severity of illness. Finally, here was an assumption of variance equivalence. In other words, the dataset used to test the hypothesis was believed to have equal variances. The continuous data set was likewise considered to be regularly distributed. The study had some limitations, including a lack of data on patients’ long-term outcomes and the use of different settings across the hospitals studied. However, the study found that dental care interventions were associated with lower hospital mortality rates, and thus may be beneficial for critically ill patients.

Ethical Considerations

The study by Ribeiro (2022) looked at the impact of a dental care intervention on the hospital mortality of critically ill patients. The authors considered different ethical considerations in the research process. First, authors ensured that all patients involved in the study understood the procedures and sign informed consent forms. One of the cornerstones of ethical research is informed consent. Informed consent means that potential participants are fully informed about the risks and benefits of participating in a study, and understand what they are consenting to. This is necessary to protect research participants from being taken advantage of, and also to ensure that they are making an informed decision about whether or not to participate in a study (Tindana et al., 2020). Potential risks and benefits can be difficult for participants to understand, so researchers must take care to communicate this information clearly and concisely. Informed consent forms must also be clear about who is sponsoring the study, as well as any financial compensation (or lack thereof) that participants may receive.

Second, the study was designed in such a way that any potential risks were minimized. When conducting any type of research, it is important to weigh the potential risks and benefits associated with the study. This is particularly true when it comes to human participants, as any risks must be minimized in order to protect the safety and welfare of participants. One approach to minimizing potential risks is through the use of a risk-benefit assessment. This assessment helps researchers identify and understand the risks and benefits of a study before it begins, so that they can make informed decisions about how best to proceed (Chen et al., 2020). It also allows for continued evaluation of risks and benefits throughout the course of the research. Another key factor in minimizing risk is obtaining informed consent from all participants. Informed consent ensures that individuals are fully aware of any potential risks in the research process. Finally, the data should be analyzed and interpreted carefully to ensure that any conclusions drawn are accurate and reliable.

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References

Chen, C., Lee, P. I., Pain, K. J., Delgado, D., Cole, C. L., & Campion Jr, T. R. (2020). Replacing paper informed consent with electronic informed consent for research in academic medical centers: a scoping review. AMIA Summits on Translational Science Proceedings2020, 80. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7233043/

Ribeiro, I. L. A., Bellissimo-Rodrigues, W. T., Mussolin, M. G., Innocentini, L. M. A. R., Marangoni, A. T. D., Macedo, L. D., … & Bellissimo-Rodrigues, F. (2022). Impact of a dental care intervention on the hospital mortality of critically ill patients admitted to intensive care units: A quasi-experimental study. American Journal of Infection Control. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajic.2022.01.022

Tindana, P., Depuur, C., de Vries, J., Seeley, J., & Parker, M. (2020). Informed consent in genomic research and biobanking: taking feedback of findings seriously. Global Bioethics31(1), 200-215. https://doi.org/10.1080/11287462.2020.1717896

While APA style is not required for the body of this assignment, solid academic writing is expected, and documentation of sources should be presented using APA formatting guidelines, which can be found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center.

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You are required to submit this assignment to LopesWrite. Refer to the LopesWrite Technical Support articles for assistance.

Epidemiology influences changes in health care in multiple ways. First, it helps identify the causes of a disease and its history, and thus health care providers can develop appropriate interventions to prevent its prevalence. Health care providers have to change how they approach a condition. They might also be forced to conduct further research to identify the best treatments for the diseases, bringing changes in health care. Secondly, epidemiology is used by health care systems and organizations to identify populations at risk of diseases and other health conditions (Fried et al., 2018). They are then required to develop the best ways of disease prevention and health promotion in these populations. They also assess the effectiveness of past methods and change them if they are not effective.

The epidemiological triangle is an example of epidemiology application. It shows the path of a disease from its causal agent to the host. The epidemiological triangle demonstrates three concepts of an infection. The first is the agent, which is a microorganism that is capable of causing disease. There are four primary disease-causing agents: viruses, bacteria, fungi, and protozoa (Zeni, 2019). These agents use a portal of entry to find their way into a host, which might be a person or an animal. The environment plays an integral role in facilitating the movement of the agent. The epidemiological triangle helps health care providers to develop ways of preventing infections by breaking the infection chain.

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Article Analysis and Evaluation of Research Ethics

Article Citation and Permalink (APA format)Article 1   Ferrari, R., Cadore, E. L., Périco, B., & Kothe, G. B. (2021). Acute effects of body-weight resistance exercises on blood pressure and glycemia in middle-aged adults with hypertension. Clinical and Experimental Hypertension43(1), 63-68. Permalink: https://doi.org/10.1080/10641963.2020.1806293
PointDescription
Broad Topic Area/TitleAcute impacts of body-weight resistance exercises on blood pressure and glycemia in middle-aged adults with hypertension
Problem Statement (What is the problem research is addressing?)The main problem in this study is the increasing incidences of blood pressure and glycemia among the middle-aged adults. The steep rise in incidences of high blood pressure and glycemia among middle-aged adults is a major problem that needs to be addressed. As many research studies have shown, the high numbers of people in this age group falling into hazardous categories for their health and wellness can lead to serious long-term health consequences ranging from cardiovascular diseases to diabetes.
Purpose Statement (What is the purpose of the study?)The main purpose of the research was to assess the short-term effects of a single body-weight resistance exercise session on blood pressure and glycemia in middle-aged people with hypertension.
Research Questions (What questions does the research seek to answer?)Does a single session of body-weight resistance exercises acutely decrease blood pressure in middle-aged adults with hypertension? Does a single session of body-weight resistance exercises acutely affect glycemia in middle-aged adults with hypertension?
Define Hypothesis (Or state the correct hypothesis based upon variables used)Null Hypothesis: A single session of body-weight resistance exercises does not acutely decrease blood pressure in middle-aged adults with hypertension. Alternative Hypothesis: A single session of body-weight resistance exercises acutely decrease blood pressure in middle-aged adults with hypertension Null Hypothesis: A single session of body-weight resistance exercises does not acutely affect glycemia in middle-aged adults with hypertension? Alternative Hypothesis: A single session of body-weight resistance exercises acutely affect glycemia in middle-aged adults with hypertension?
Identify Dependent and Independent Variables and Type of Data for the VariablesDependent variables Diastolic and systolic blood pressure (continuous, numeric data)Glycemia (continuous, numeric data) Independent variable body-weight resistance exercises (continuous, numeric data)
Population of Interest for StudyMiddle-aged adults with hypertension
SampleThe sample size for the study was 23
Sampling MethodSimple random sampling
Identify Data Collection Identify how data were collectedData was collected through measurements and recordings. Questionnaires were used to record the outcomes of each measurement done.  
Summarize Data Collection ApproachMeasures were collected from all the 23 participants. During the exercise, the height, body weight/mass were measured and recorded and thereafter, body mass index calculated. Also, the systolic and diastolic blood pressure were measured and recorded after each session of body-weight resistance exercises.
Discuss Data Analysis Include what types of statistical tests were used for the variables.From the study, WinPepi software calculator was used to obtain the sample size estimates for variables with normal distribution, and medians and interquartile range were obtained for the non-normal distributions. To compare the main effects of the session outcomes, generalized estimating equations (GEE) analysis was employed (Ferrari et al., 2021). After assessment, post-hoc comparisons between observed results were undertaken using Bonferroni tests. Lastly, SPSS Statistics version 22.0 from IBM corp., Armonk, NY, USA was utilized for running all statistical analyses and interpreting their outcomes
Summarize Results of StudyThis study has provided evidence that body-weight resistance exercise can help to reduce systolic and diastolic blood pressure in adults with hypertension. Its efficacy was clearly demonstrated compared to a control session, without leading to increases in glycemia. These findings add to the body of research on potential lifestyle changes that could be used to manage hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases, which is especially pertinent given the rising prevalence of these conditions (Ferrari et al., 2021). As such, this study highlights the important role that body-weight resistance exercises could play in helping adults manage their health.
Summary of Assumptions and Limitations Identify the assumptions and limitations from the article. Report other potential assumptions and limitations of your review not listed by the author.This study has numerous useful implications, as it could provide a novel non-pharmacological tool to prevent and manage hypertension. However, there are some limitations that must be taken into consideration. These include the lack of observation over the long-term effects on blood pressure and glycemia, failure to measure any underlying hemodynamic mechanisms, and the fact that different protocols of body-weight resistance exercises might lead to different results altogether. In addition, this investigation relied solely on self-report dietary history information from each participant so results should be interpreted with caution. Despite these drawbacks, this study represents a significant step towards understanding the benefits of body-weight resistance exercises for middle-aged adults with hypertension.

TOTAL                                                                                                          50

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Ethical Consideration

Since the study subjects considered were students and nurses, ethical approval was sought from the Tezpur Medical College Hospital. The research proposal was then submitted to the committee for approval, where the committee ascertained that the study followed all the required measures required to start data collection from the students. Informed consent is one ethical issue that affected this study. This study sought the consent of the respondent before taking information from them. Participants have the choice to participate or decline to participate in the survey (Mahanta et al., 2021). In this sense, the study upheld high levels of honesty and integrity. For instance, the conduct of the researcher influenced honest answers from respondents. Besides, honest answers reflected the true picture of the topic of study. The increasing level of researcher openness was significant in attaining a significant response rate. This aimed at gaining the trust of respondents to participate in the study by answering the asked question with utmost sincerity. The respondents read information about the study before deciding whether to participate or not. The study also ensured the privacy of participant information by making the questionnaires anonymous so that the identity of participants is not revealed. The researcher handled the responses alone, and the information from respondents was not to get to any third party.

 

Rationale

            The article is credible in studying one of the common problems in healthcare. The high sample size used in this study further defines the accuracy and generalizability of its finding in the overall healthcare domain. This evaluation, therefore, ascertains that this article is of great importance in supporting the thesis of hygiene in healthcare and the reduction of HAIs.

 

 

References

Gupta, N., Bhatawadekar, S., Patil, K., Lahiri, K. K., Modak, M. S., & Kumar, M. (2022). Efficacy of hand hygiene by use of different handwashing solutions and drying methods- Report from Western India. IP International Journal of Medical Microbiology and Tropical Diseases. https://doi.org/10.18231/j.ijmmtd.2022.016

Mahanta, B., Das, D. K., Borah, P., Mahanta, P., & Dutta, M. (2021). Knowledge of hand cleanliness among medical students and nurses at tertiary healthcare centre: A cross-sectional study. Open Journal of Psychiatry & Allied Sciences12(1), 43-47.https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/4b35/fefaf24d792853a38d9e56f57b5e3ae25e25.pdf

Nasution, T. A., Yunita, R., Pasaribu, A. P., & Ardinata, F. M. (2019). Effectiveness hand washing and hand rub method in reducing total bacteria colony from nurses in Medan. Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences7(20), 3380. https://doi.org/10.3889/oamjms.2019.427

 

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